I've tried many different methods.
1. restore the stock firmware and do the jailbreak again. -> No success.
2. reinstall Cydia with SSH on the iPhone. -> No success.
3. just boot the iphone tetherly again and again -> No success.
So I tried to read the log file of Cydia. The log file can be found at /private/var/tmp/cydia.log. I noticed that an error is repeated again and again.
2011-12-22 14:43:20.135 MobileCydia[252:e07] Setting Language: de_DE
Assertion failed: (dictionary->lockFD != -1), function IDXUserDictionaryOpen, file /SourceCache/Mecabra/Mecabra-248/mecabra/IDXUserDictionary.c, line 88.
I've googled for a while and nothing is found...but it must be something wrong with the laguage settings. I've discoved I use English as user interface language and German as date/time format. Mumm, maybe that is the problem. I've set the both as English. Now, Cydia runs smoothly without any problems.
In a short, that is a bug of Cydia, it depends on the language settings of iOS! Try to set up the language unified, then it doesn't complain again.